This project was one component of a larger regional effort developing a litter prevention campaign. The Regional Litter Prevention Campaign has been built on a unique foundation of in-depth social marketing research and a team of three innovative firms; OpinionWorks, Noral Group International, and Ruder Finn. This research led to the creation of a Toolkit of communication items for partnering jurisdictions, agencies, non-profit organizations, and citizens. The extensive research shows there are deep-rooted barriers to changing littering behavior. For most litterers, littering is nearly an impulsive behavior and defenses for this run high including repression, denial, rationalization and externalization. The Regional Litter Prevention Campaign aims to take litterers out of their defenses by raising anxiety about littering and offering a higher level reward for being trash-free through the key-message of the campaign.